Neurons, also known as nerve cells are the structural and functional units of the nervous tissue. Some of the structures that are composed of neurons are nerves, spinal cord and the brain. A neuron consists of a cell body having cytoplasm and a nucleus from which elongated hair-like structures emerge. Each of this neuron consists of axons, a process(single long part) and dendrites(short and branched parts). It resembles a small tree with fine hair-like structures arising from its terminals.
Given below is a diagram of the neuron:
- A branch structure that operates by collecting signals from other neurons and allowing signals to be transmitted to the cell body is known as dendrites
- Every neuron has a nucleus, Golgi device, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and other elements in the cell body.
- Axon is a tube-like structure that operates to transfer the impulse to another neuron by transferring an electrical impulse from the cell body to the axon terminals.
- Synapse is a mechanism works by enabling the entry of a neuron from one neuron to another neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal.