The common name of Haloalkane is Alkyl halide.
The replacement of hydrogen atom(s) in a hydrocarbon, aliphatic or aromatic, by a halogen atom(s), results in the formation of alkyl halide (haloalkane) and aryl halide (haloarene), respectively. Haloalkanes contain halogen atom(s) attached to the sp3 hybridised carbon atom of an alkyl group. These may be classified as mono, di, or polyhalogen (tri-, tetra-, etc.) compounds depending on whether they contain one, two or more halogen atoms in their structures.
- In alkyl halides, the halogen atom is bonded to an alkyl group (R). Thus, they form a homologous series represented by CnH2n+1X. They are further classified as primary, secondary or tertiary according to the nature of carbon to which the halogen is attached.
- The polarity of the carbon-halogen bond of alkyl halides is responsible for their nucleophilic substitution, elimination, and reaction with metal atoms to form organometallic compounds.