What is the Formal charge on Cl in HClO4?


The formal charge over an atom of a polyatomic molecule or ion is the difference between the valence electron of that atom in the elemental state and the number of electrons assigned to that atom in the Lewis structure.


Mathematically, it can be expressed by the following formula:

F.C. = [Total no. of valence e in the free state] – [total no. of e assigned in Lewis structure]

F.C. = [Total no. of valence e in the free state] – [Total no. of non-bonding pair e (lone pair)] – 1/2 [Total no. of bonding e]

Formal charge on Cl in HClO4

Formal Charge on Cl atom = [No. of valence electrons on atom] – [non-bonded electrons + number of bonds]

v = 7

N = 0

B = 14

F.C. = 7 – 0 – (14/2)

F.C. = 7 – 7

F.C. = 0

Formal Charge on Cl in HClO4= 3

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