Where do you find alluvial soil?

Alluvial soils are largely distributed in the river valleys and northern plains.

  • Out of the total area of India, Alluvial soils cover 40%.
  • In the Peninsular region, Alluvial soils are found in river valleys and in deltas of the east coast.
  • Through a narrow corridor in Rajasthan, they extend into the plains of Gujarat.
  • Alluvial soils are transported and deposited by rivers and streams. Alluvial soils are depositional soils.
  • The colour of the alluvial soils varies from the light grey to ash grey.
  • Alluvial soils are poor in phosphorus and generally rich in potash.

Alluvial Soil – 2 different Types

There are 2 different types of alluvial soils which are mentioned below:

  1. Bhangar – represents a system of older alluvium, deposited away from the flood plains.
  2. Khadar – The new alluvium which is deposited by floods annually is Khadar.

Soil Classification – Parameters

The soils of India have been classified into 8 different types based on the following 4 different parameters:

  1. Composition
  2. Colour
  3. Genesis 
  4. Location

Classifications of Soils in India – 8 Types 

  1. Alluvial soils
  2. Black soils
  3. Red and Yellow soils
  4. Laterite soils
  5. Arid soils
  6. Saline soils
  7. Peaty soils
  8. Forest soils.

Details on Alluvial soil are given above, brief details on other 7 different types of soils are given below:

Red and Yellow Soils

  • Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in the southern and eastern part of the Deccan Plateau. This soil is found in the areas of low rainfall.

Black Soil

  • Moisture can be retained for a very long time by Black soil.
  • Black soils are also known as the Black Cotton Soil or Regur Soil.
  • The black soils are usually impermeable, deep, and clayey.

Arid Soil

  • Arid soils lack humus, organic matter and moisture.
  • Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.
  • Arid soils are usually found in Western Rajasthan.

Laterite Soils

  • The laterite soils are found in areas having heavy rainfall and high temperature.
  • Laterite has been derived from the Latin word ‘Later’ which means brick.
  • Laterite soils are poor in calcium, organic matter, phosphate, and nitrogen content.

Forest Soils

  • Forest soils are formed in the forest areas where sufficient rainfall is available.
  • Forest soils found in the lower valleys are fertile.
  • Forest soils are coarse-grained in the upper slopes and silty and loamy on valley sides.

Saline Soils

  • Saline soils are also known as Usara soils.
  • Saline soils does not help in vegetative growth as they are infertile.
  • Saline soils are infertile due to high proportions of potassium, sodium, magnesium. 
  • Saline soils are found in waterlogged, semi-arid regions, swampy regions, and arid areas.
  • Saline soils lack calcium and nitrogen.
  • Saline soils are distributed across Sunderban areas of West Bengal, deltas of the eastern coast, and western Gujarat.

Peaty Soils

  • There is good growth of vegetation in these soils.
  • The soil is rich in organic matter and humus.
  • The percentage of Organic matter in Peaty soils are in the range of 40 to 50%.
  • They are found in the areas of heavy rainfall and high humidity.
  • It is widely found in the coastal areas of Orissa, West Bengal, and Tamil Nadu,southern part of Uttaranchal, and in the northern part of Bihar.

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