Nucleus controls the entire activities of the cell.
The most integral component of the cell is the nucleus (plural: nuclei). It is derived from a Latin word which means “kernel of a nut”. A nucleus is defined as a double-membraned eukaryotic cell organelle that contains the genetic material.
Listed below are the some vital features of nucleus
- It is the largest organelle, which functions as the control centre of the cellular activities and is the storehouse of the cell’s DNA.
- By structure, the nucleus is dark, round, surrounded by a nuclear membrane. It is a porous membrane (like cell membrane) and forms a wall between cytoplasm and nucleus.
- Within the nucleus, there are tiny spherical bodies called nucleolus. It also carries another essential structure, called chromosomes.
- Chromosomes are thin and thread-like structures which carry another important structure called a gene. Genes are a hereditary unit in organisms which means it helps in the inheritance of traits from one generation (parents) to another (offspring).
In this manner, the nucleus controls the characters and functions of cells in our body.
Following are the important nucleus function:
- It contains the cell’s hereditary information and controls the cell’s growth and reproduction.
- The nucleus has been clearly explained as a membrane-bound structure that comprises the genetic material of a cell.
- It is not just a storage compartment for DNA, but also happens to be the home of some important cellular processes.
- First and foremost, it is possible to duplicate one’s DNA in the nucleus. This process has been named DNA Replication and produces an identical copy of the DNA.
- Producing two identical copies of the body or host is the first step in cell division, where every new cell will get its own set of instructions.
- Secondly, the nucleus is the site of transcription. Transcription creates different types of RNA from DNA. Transcription would be a lot like creating copies of individual pages of the human body’s instructions which may be moved out and read by the rest of the cell.
- The central rule of biology states that DNA is copied into RNA, and then proteins.