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Question

(a) What is a mixture? Give two example of mixtures.

(b) What is meant by (i) homogeneous mixtures, and (ii) heterogeneous mixtures? Give two examples of homogeneous mixtures and two of heterogeneous mixtures.

(c) What is the other name of homogeneous mixtures?


Solution

(a) A mixture is an impure substance made up of two or more substances which are miscible or immiscible in each other. A mixture can be either homogeneous or heterogeneous

(b) 

Heterogeneous mixture

It is a mixture in which the particle or substances are not evenly spread or distributed as shown in the above figure. This type of mixture can be easily converted to their original shape through chemical processes. Heterogeneous mixtures are also called as suspensions or colloids. The word ‘hetero’ means different.

 Mud is a good example of colloids. If you mix some mud with water and keep it for few days, you can see that mud gets settled in the bottom of the container. Hence this shows that mud and water form a heterogeneous mixture. This kind of suspensions or colloids is visible to the naked eye.

More Examples of Heterogeneous mixtures:

Milk - water + lactose + etc

Cold cream - oil + water

Mineral water - minerals + water

Homogeneous mixture

As the word, ‘Homo’ means same, homogeneous mixture are those substances in which the particles are uniformly distributed within the container. The size and shape of every particle remain the same in this case. A homogeneous mixture is also known as solutions.

A good example of this kind of mixture is steel. In steel, the iron and carbon are evenly distributed which makes it a homogeneous mixture. These are not visible to the naked eye.

More Examples of Homogeneous mixtures:

Saltwater - salt + water

Alloys (Eg: Brass - copper + zinc)

Air (the mixture of various gases like nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, argon etc)

Note: All gaseous mixtures are homogeneous


(c) Another name for a homogeneous mixture is a solution. Solutions are made by dissolving a solute into a solvent.

A solution of metals, for example, is called an alloy. 22 karat yellow gold contains gold, silver, copper, and zinc. The reason other metals are added to gold is that pure gold is a soft metal; adding other metals to it makes it harder and therefore more durable.

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