Answer the following questions.
(i) What is meant by the term ‘industry’?
(ii) What are the main factors which influence the location of an industry?
(iii) Which industry is often referred to as the backbone of modern industry and why?
(iv) Why cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai?
(v) What are the similarities between information technology industry in Bangalore and California?
(i) The term ‘industry’ refers to an economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods (e.g., iron and steel industry), extraction of minerals (e.g., coal mining industry) or provision of services (e.g., tourism industry).
(ii) Factors influencing the location of an industry:
(a) Availability of raw material
(b) Availability of land
(c) Adequate supply of water
(d) Adequate supply of labour
(e) Access to power
(f) Amount of capital
(g) Access to transport
(h) Presence of market
(iii) The iron and steel industry is a feeder industry whose products are used as raw materials in other industries. This is why it is referred to as the backbone of modern industry. Almost everything that we use is either made of iron or steel, or has been made using tools and machinery made of these metals.
(iv) The cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai because of its locational advantages. The warm and moist climate (ideal for spinning and weaving), the nearness to a sea port (important for importing machinery), and the availability of raw material and skilled labour are some of the factors that resulted in the growth of this industry in Mumbai.
(v) Similarities between information technology industry in Bangalore and California:
(a) Presence of high quality educational institutions, and advanced scientific and technological centres
(b) Pleasant climate and clean environment
(c) Presence of good quality, skilled workforce
(d) Access to markets
(e) Well-developed and well-connected