Briefly describe the followings

(i) Anaemia

(ii) Angina pectoris

(iii) Atherosclerosis

(iv) Hypertension

(v) Heart failure

(vi) Erythroblastosis foetalis


(i) Anaemia is the decrease in the number of RBC than the normal amount and also due to less quantity of haemoglobin than the normal value in blood This is the most common disorder of the blood.

(ii) Angina pectoris Occurs when there is a blockage in the coronary artery, thus the insufficient supply of heart muscles. This results in chest pain, fear, anxiety, pale skin, profuse sweating and vomiting. The anginal pain usually starts in the centre of the chest spreads down to the left arm which lasts for only a few seconds.

(iii) Atherosclerosis is the deposition of cholesterol in the inner lining of arteries called atherosclerotic plaque. Sometimes arteries are completely blocked, this results in a stroke or heart attack.

(iv) Hypertension Ps sometimes also called as arterial hypertension. The blood pressure in the arteries getselevated. It could be primary hypertension which has no obvious medical reason but secondary hypertension are caused by various conditions which affect kidneys, arteries heart or endocrine system.

(v) Heart failure is the state of heart when it does not pump blood effectively enough to meet the needs of the body.

(vi) Erythroblastosis foetalis is a haemolytic disease of newborns which is an alloimmune condition that develops in the foetus when lgG molecules produced by mother pass through the placenta and attack RBC causing reticulocytosis and anaemia. It develops due to Rh incompatibility between the couples.

In a man with Rh+ blood and women with Rh, blood the second pregnancy foetus may have this problem due to lgG accumulation in women during first child development and delivery.

NCERT Exemplar
Standard XI

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