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Question

By drawing an electron dot diagram, show the lone pair effect leading to the formation of ammonium ion from ammonia gas and hydrogen ion.

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Solution

The lone pair on nitrogen atom in ammonia attracts hydrogen ion, leading to the formation of a coordinate bond between nitrogen and hydrogen. It is represented by an arrow () pointing from nitrogen (donor) to hydrogen (acceptor) in the electron dot diagram as shown below. Formation of ammonium ion can be represented as:

H:N..H..:H + H+ H:NH.. H..:H + or H-NH H H+


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