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Consider the following statements regarding RT-PCR (Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction)

I. It is a fully automated, high-end analysis for performing identification tests for COVID-19.
II. It can detect other pathogens like HIV.
III. RT-PCR detects past viral infections by looking for antibodies produced to fight the virus.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

A
Statements (I) and (II) are correct, but statement (III) is incorrect
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B
Statements (I) and (II) are incorrect, but statement (III) is correct
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C
Statements (I) and (III) are correct, but statement (II) is incorrect
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D
All statements are correct
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Solution

The correct option is A Statements (I) and (II) are correct, but statement (III) is incorrect
RT-PCR (Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) is a highly sensitive technique which is used for detection and quantification of RNA.

PCR or polymerase chain reaction is a technique used in molecular biology to create several copies of a certain DNA segment. PCR does not work on RNA directly. Hence in RT-PCR, the RNA is reverse transcribed into complementary DNA (cDNA), using reverse transcriptase, and then PCR is used to amplify the cDNA.


Statement I is correct: RT-PCR is a variation of PCR with an additional step of reverse transcription. Coronavirus contains RNA as genetic material and is responsible for Covid-19, hence RT-PCR is used for performing its identification test.

Statement II is correct: Pathogens such as HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) have RNA as their genetic material like coronavirus. Hence RT-PCR can be used to detect HIV.

Statement III is incorrect: Most of the infections caused by retrovirus (virus containing RNA as genetic material) are tested using RT-PCR. For eg: In case of testing for coronavirus, samples obtained from a patient's nose and throat swabs containing active virus are used. The viral RNA is reverse transcribed to cDNA using reverse transcriptase, followed by PCR which is used to amplify the cDNA. Hence the test works by isolating the RNA sequence in the virus and not the antibodies produced against it. For antibody detection, ELISA can be used.

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Q. Q. With reference to testing of Covid-19, consider the following statements:

1. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detects past viral infections by looking for antibodies produced to fight the virus.
2. CRISPR based tests recognize specific genetic sequences and cut them, revealing the presence of viral genetic material quickly.
3. Serological test work by amplifying a specific genetic sequence in the viral genetic material from nose and throat swabs.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Q. कोविद -19 के परीक्षण(टेस्टिंग) के संदर्भ में, निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें:

1. रिवर्स ट्रांसक्रिप्शन पोलीमरेज़ चेन रिएक्शन (आरटी-पीसीआर) के अंतर्गत वायरस से लड़ने के क्रम में विकसित एंटीबॉडी की खोज में पिछले वायरल संक्रमण का पता चल पाता है।
2. सीआरआईएसपीआर आधारित परीक्षण में विशिष्ट आनुवंशिक अनुक्रमों को पहचाना जाता है और उन्हें काटा जाता है , जिससे वायरल आनुवंशिक सामग्री की उपस्थिति के बारे में अपेक्षाकृत जल्दी पता लग जता है।
3. नाक और गले की सूजन से उत्पन्न वायरल आनुवंशिक तत्त्व में एक विशिष्ट आनुवंशिक अनुक्रम को बढ़ाकर सीरोलॉजिकल परीक्षण कार्य।

ऊपर दिए गए कथनों में से कौन सा/से सही है / हैं ?
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