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Define Isotonic,hypertonic and hypotonic solutions

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Isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic solutions

  1. Terms isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic are usually used when a reference to the cell of a living organism is made, but they can be generally used to compare the concentration of a solute in two solutions.

Isotonic solution

  1. Isotonic solutions are two solutions that have the same concentration as a solute.
  2. Example: 1.0 M glucose solution is isotonic with 1.0 M fructose solution as both solutions have the same osmotic pressure.

Hypertonic solution

  1. The solution whose osmotic pressure is higher than that of the other is called a hypertonic solution.
  2. Example: Blood cells suspended in a solution containing more than 0.9% (m/v) sodium chloride solution (saline).
  3. In this solution, water will flow out of the blood cells and they would shrink.

Hypotonic solution

  1. A solution is called hypotonic if its osmotic pressure is lower than that of the solution from which it is separated by a semipermeable membrane.
  2. A common example of a hypotonic solution is 0.45% normal saline (half normal saline).
  3. Example: Pure water and saline solutions that contains less solute than our blood used in medicine

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