Explain briefly, nicturition and disorders fo the excretory system.


The process of release of urine is called micturition and the neural mechanism. Causing it is called the micturition reflex. 
the urinary bladder and the internal sphincter are supplied by sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems of the autonomic nervous system. In response. The stretch receptors on the walls of the bladder sent signals to the central Nervous system (CNS). 
The CNS passes on motor messages to initiate the contraction of smooth muscles of the bladder and simultaneous relaxation of the urethral sphincter causing the release of urine.
Disorders of the excretory system include
(i) Uremia It is the malfunctioning of kidneys, which leads to accumulation of urea in blood, in turn, the kidney failure. In such patients, urea can be removed by Haemodialysis.
(ii) Renal Failure (RF) it is caused by a decrease in glomerular filtration. In Acute Renal Failure (ARF) both kidney abruptly stop working due to damaged renal tubules, kidney stone antibiotics, etc, haemodialysis and renal transplant are the only ways to arrive overcome renal failure.
(iii) Renal calculi it is the formation of stones or insoluble mass of crystallised salts in the kidney.
(iv) Glomerulonephritis is the inflammation of glomeruli of the kidney.


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