Explain the term electronics.

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Definition of electronics

The managed flow of electrons has been used through various techniques and forms known as electronics.

Importance of electronics

  1. Besides the common digital gadgets such as radio and television receivers, audio and videotape recorders, frequency synthesizers, calculators, cameras, musical doorbells, and many others., electronics have presented their services in many walks of life.
  2. The computer, which has revolutionized the arena, is one of the essential achievements of electronics. In clinical diagnostics and surgical operations, all scanning gadgets and strategies use electronics in one form or another.

Flow of electrons

  1. The term ‘electronics’ has been coined from electrons, which flow through a conductor to give us electric current.
  2. This current can be used for various purposes. However, electronics have far-reaching capabilities and potentialities.
  3. The flow of electrons has been regulated and controlled in electronic devices under the stimuli of external influences, which may be called signals, messages, data, etc.
  4. The controlled flow of electrons has been used through various techniques and forms and is known as electronics.

Branches of Electronics

Some of the most common branches of electronics are:

  1. Analog electronics - analog or continuous signals of current and voltage are used for various communication and data transfer processes.
  2. Digital electronics - digital or discrete signals are used in the form of high or low voltage, which is also represented as 1 or 0 respectively for various data transfer devices.
  3. Microelectronics - the manufacture or study of various microscale or even smaller electronics systems and circuits.
  4. Optoelectronics - using electronic devices to generate, modify or study various types of light rays, lasers, etc.
  5. Semiconductor devices - manufacturing and study of various electronic devices that are made of semiconductor materials, which have conductivity between the conduction band and insulating band.

Famous laws of Electronics

  1. Ohm's law - This is the most famous and basic law of electronics which states that the voltage between two points in a conductor is directly proportional to the current flowing inside it.
  2. Kirchhoff's Current law - It states that the algebraic sum of the currents meeting at a junction point in a network is zero.
  3. Kirchhoff's Voltage law - It states that the algebraic sum of the products of current and resistance in each part of any loop in a network is equal to the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces (emf's) in the same loop.
  4. Coulomb's law - According to this law, the force of interaction between two stationary point charges is proportional to the product of the charges, inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them and it acts along the line joining the charges.
  5. Gauss' law - In an arbitrary electrostatic field (in vacuum) the total electric flux over any closed surface is equal to 1ε0 times the total charge enclosed by the surface, where ε0 is the free space permittivity.
  6. Faraday's law - Induced emf in a circuit is proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux linked with the circuit.
  7. Lenz's law - The direction of induced emf is such that it tries to oppose the cause of its generation, i.e., the variation of magnetic flux producing it.

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