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Question

Match the following.

Column I Column II
A PCR i Prenatal diagnosis
B Serum and urine analysis ii Conventional diagnostic method
C Amniocentesis iii Antigen-antibody interaction
D ELISA iv Amplification of a DNA sequence

A
A-iv, B-ii, C-i, D-iii
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B
A-iii, B-ii, C-i, D-iv
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C
A-iv, B-ii, C-iii, D-i
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D
A-i, B-ii, C-iv, D-iii
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Solution

The correct option is A A-iv, B-ii, C-i, D-iii
PCR, ELISA and rDNA technology serves the purpose of early diagnosis. These are the modern techniques of diagnosing diseases at the molecular level.

PCR stands for Polymerase Chain Reaction. It is a method widely used to rapidly make millions of copies of a specific DNA sample. It is based on the basic principle of enzymatic replication of the nucleic acid. It uses DNA polymerase for an in vitro replication of specific DNA sequences.

ELISA test stands for Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. It is an early diagnostic test for some diseases like AIDS. This test is based on the principle of antigen- antibody interaction.

Amniocentesis is a medical procedure used primarily in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities in the foetus. It can be used for sex determination as well. In this procedure, a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is sampled from the amniotic sac surrounding a developing fetus, using a special syringe.

Blood tests, serum analysis and urine analysis are the conventional methods of the diagnosis of diseases.

Serum is a component of blood. Centrifugation can be used to separate the plasma or serum from the blood samples. Blood serum is a common method for measuring a wide variety of analytes including steroid, thyroid and peptide hormones.

A urinalysis is the test of urine. It is used to detect and manage a wide range of disorders, like urinary tract infections, kidney disease, diabetes etc. It involves checking the appearance, concentration and content of urine.

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