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Question

Name two cell organelles that are double membrane bound. What are the characteristics of these two organelles? State their functions and draw labelled diagrams of both.

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Solution

There are many cell organelles which are membrane-bound, The two organelles which have double membrane are the mitochondria and choloroplast.

Mitochondria
  • Are sausage or cylindrical-shaped organelles found in cytoplasm
  • Are the sites of aerobic respiration (complete breakdown of glucose to release energy)
  • Number and size varies.
  • Has 2 membranes; outer membrane and inner membrane
  • Inner membrane forms a number of infoldings called the cristae
  • Cristae contains many enzymes required for forming ATP (storage form of energy inside a cell)
  • Fluid-filled space inside the mitochondria is called the matrix
  • Matrix contains a circular DNA, few RNA molecules and ribosomes (70S).
  • Are also called the powerhouses of the cell (because they generate energy required for the cell and store it in the form of ATP)
  • Are semi-autonomous (They have their own DNA and replicate on their own and can also synthesize most of its proteins)
Chloroplast
  • They are mainly present in the in leaf epidermal cells.
  • They are cylindrical-shaped organelles
  • They are the sites of photosynthesis
  • They have 2 membranes; outer and inner membrane
  • The fluid-filled internal space is called the stroma
  • The stroma contains thylakoids which contain the pigments chlorophyll and carotenoids.
  • The stroma also contains a circular DNA, few RNA molecules and ribosomes (70S).

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