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Name two plants which are usually propagated by artificial propagation methods. Name the method of artificial propagation used in each case.

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Artificial reproduction/propagation is the creation of new life by other than the natural means available to an organism. Cutting plants' stems and placing them in compost is also a form of artificial reproduction. The process of growing many plants from one plant by man-made methods is called artificial propagation of plants. A number of methods of artificial propagation of plants are used in agriculture (for raising crops), and horticulture (cultivation of vegetables, fruits, and flowers).
  • Strawberries are propagated by the natural layering method. The natural layering occurs because of these plants from runners (which are soft horizontal stems running above the ground). Wherever the ends of such runners touch the ground, new plants are formed at those places. In this way, many more strawberry or raspberry plants are formed from the parent plant in a natural way. Grafting is used to breed fruit trees and flowering bushes.
  • Apple trees are often grafted. The stock (the plant with roots) and Scion (the plant without roots) are used in grafting. The scion is placed over the stock. The cut surfaces of the scion and stock are fitted together and bound tightly with a piece of cloth and covered properly with polythene sheet (so as to prevent harmful infection by bacteria or fungus, and loss of water and plant sap from the cut and joined ends of stock and Scion). While joining the scion to the stock, care should be taken to make sure that the cambium layer of the scion is in contact with the cambium layer of stock (because the cambium layer in the stem is responsible for growth). The cut soon heals and the stock and scion of two plants grow together and become one plant. The scion continues to produce its original leaves, flowers, and fruits but it gets water and minerals for making food from the chosen stock. So, the fruits will have the characteristics of both the plants (from which scion and stock have come).

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