Please explain translation process in depth
Translation is the process of synthesis of proteins from mRNA. Various components required for translation are: mRNA, Ribosomes, activated tRNA, Initiation factors, elongation factors, release factors. The steps of translation are as follows:
1) Activation of tRNA: This step occurs before the process of translation and is an essential step as it loads the amino acids on their respective tRNA. Only activated tRNA are required to form peptide bond between two amino acids.
2) Initiation: Initiation occurs when a small subunit of ribosome encounters an mRNA. the small subunits binds to the start codon (AUG). Then an initiation complex is formed by the two subunits of ribosomes, initiator tRNA (complementary to AUG), initiation factors and GTP.
3) Elongation: Elongation occurs with the help of elongation factors. According to the sequence of mRNA, the activated tRNA's come one by one and a peptide bond is formed between adjacent amino acids.
4) Termination: Termination occurs when the ribosome encounters the stop codon (UAA, UGA, or UAG). A release factors binds to the stop codon and terminates translation. Then the polypeptide is released from the ribosomal complex.