Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are pollutants released into the atmosphere when fossil fuels like diesel and coal are burned.
When these pollutants react with water vapours in the atmosphere, nitric acid and sulphuric acid are generated. When these acids fall to the ground as a result of precipitation, acid rain is generated.
Acid rain corrodes the Taj Mahal when it touches it or falls on it. Acid rain combines with marble to produce a powdery product that is then carried away by the rain. The Taj Mahal was constructed completely of marble. This condition is referred to as marble cancer.
Companies in and around Agra, such as the Mathura Oil refinery, rubber processing and other industries, have been accused of discharge air pollution. Sulphur and nitrogen oxide are the most common pollutants that react with air to produce acids.
Due to the toxic chemicals, the white marble began to discolour.
Therefore, the major threat to the Taj Mahal is Acid rain.