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Question

The polarising action of Cd2+ ion over anions is stronger than that of Ca2+ because:
  1. The charges of the ions are same
  2. Their radii are similar (Ca2+=0.104 nm; Cd2+=0.099 nm)
  3. All the above are correct
  4. Ca2+ ion has a noble gas electronic configuration and the Cd2+ ion has a 18e electronic configuration in the outer shell


Solution

The correct option is D Ca2+ ion has a noble gas electronic configuration and the Cd2+ ion has a 18e electronic configuration in the outer shell
20Ca:[Ar]4s2
Ca2+:[Ar]  noble gas configuration
48Cd:[Kr]5s24d10
Cd2+:[Kr]4d10
or,
Cd2+:1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 4d10
2+6+10=18 
Cd2+:[Kr]4d10  18e electronic configuration

The outer most d-orbital cannot shield the nuclear charge as much and hence, the polarisation of Cd2+>Ca2+.

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