Which among the following statements about the partition is incorrect?

(a) Partition of India was the outcome of the “two-nation theory.”
(b) Punjab and Bengal were the two provinces divided on the basis of religion.
(c) East Pakistan and West Pakistan were not contiguous.
(d) The scheme of Partition included a plan for transfer of population across the border.

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Ans (d)

(a) This statement is true
The partition of the country was based on the most unscientific theory, that is, the Two-Nation Theory propagated by the Muslim League. This theory argued that Muslims and Hindus constitute two separate nationalities and have different interests. It also stressed on the fact that the two blocs cannot be bound together as one nation. The theory was not based on any other ethnic or common factor that the two communities shared. Thus, it demanded a separate nation for Muslims.
(b) This statement is true
Both Punjab and Bengal were Muslim majority provinces that were affected by the partition. It was decided that both regions were to be bifurcated on the basis of their religious majority. This indeed proved fatal as the non-Muslim majority faced terrible repercussions not knowing whether they belonged to India or Pakistan.
(c) This statement is true
East Pakistan and West Pakistan were not adjacent to each other and were not geographically connected by any means. They were separated by long geographical expanse of India that made the administration of East Pakistan difficult.
(d) This statement is incorrect
The partition was based on religious lines and did not involve any plan regarding the transfer of population. The political boundaries that were drawn left people on both the sides of the border undecided as to which side they belonged. It brought about massive migration and exodus of people from both the sides. The partition itself was a colossal task. It was not that only new boundaries had to be laid out; it brought about a mass transfer of population from both the sides. Partition brought about the most tragic and abrupt transfer of population. Lakhs of Hindus and Sikhs, in the areas that were to be a part of Pakistan, and Muslims in Punjab, Calcutta, Delhi and other areas found themselves trapped and were compelled to leave their ancestral homes.

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