The correct option is B New characters are acquired by the living beings either due to the use or disuse of the organs
Lamarck, a French biologist, believed that new characters are acquired by the living organisms either due to the use or disuse of the organs. The changes in the environment of an organism creates new needs in behaviour or structure that would help it to adapt to the changing environment. This involves greater use of some organs keeping it functional or disuse of certain organs leading to the reduction in their size and loss of functionality.
In his attempt to explain the mechanism of evolution, Darwin laid down his theory of natural selection. His theory is based on his observations that were made as he travelled across the world in the sail ship, H.M.S Beagle.
He believed that minor inheritable changes or variations naturally occur in organisms and natural selection of useful variations is the driving force of evolution. Organisms with variations that have better adaptability to their surroundings in adverse conditions are selected by nature during the struggle for existence. Such selected individuals continue to survive and attain reproductive maturity. Hence, they are able to reproduce and pass on the variations to the next generation.
According to Darwin, fitness ultimately refers to reproductive fitness. Hence, those who are better fit in an environment, leave more progeny than others. Therefore, these organisms will survive more and hence are selected by nature. Such variations accumulate over many generations and eventually give rise to offspring which are considerably different from their ancestors. Thus, they evolve into a new species.