Write a paragraph in your own words on each of the following.
(a) Preparation of soil
(b) Sowing
(c) Weeding
(d) Threshing


a) The first step in crop cultivation is soil preparation which is done to facilitate easy penetration of roots, proper aeration and growth of soil microbes. Soil preparation includes loosening of soil with the help of a plough or cultivar. After which the leftover soil crumbs are broken down using a leveller which facilitates sowing and irrigation. 

b) Soil preparation is followed by sowing, i.e., putting the seeds in the soil. The selection of healthy seeds is a prerequisite for sowing. Sowing methods include broadcasting or scattering seeds over the field, seed drill or sowing of seeds in rows at proper depth and spacing, transplanting, etc. Basic requirements for seed germination and growth of seedling are sunlight, water and nutrient. Sowing seeds at the right depth and keeping the proper spacing between seeds and seedlings are very important. 

c) Weeds are unwanted and wild plants that grow with crops and compete with crops for nutrients. They can also cause crop toxification. Weeding is the removal of weeds and is mostly done before flowering begins in crop plants. It is done using a trowel, harrow or weedicides. 

d) Threshing is one of the harvesting technique by which grains are separated from the harvested crop. Manual threshing includes the beating of harvested crops on a hard platform followed by making bullocks to walk on it to facilitate the separation of seeds and hay. Hay is cut into small pieces and is fed to cattle. Nowadays, most farmers use a thresher or combine to save time. 

Standard VIII

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