Discuss the steps to be taken to minimise environmental degradation by industry.

Every litre of waste water discharged by our industry pollutes eight times the quantity of freshwater

  • Treating effluents and hot water before releasing them in ponds and rivers. 
  • By recycling and reusing water in two or more stages, water usage can be minimised.
  • To meet water requirements, it is important to carry out rainwater harvesting.
  • Mechanical means are the primary treatment. This involves sedimentation, flocculation, grinding, screening. 
  • Biological process is the secondary treatment.
  • Physical, chemical and biological is the Tertiary treatment. Recycling wastewater is also involved.
  • There needs to be legal regulation of groundwater resources, wherever there is threat of overdrawing groundwater resources by the industry.
  • Using inertial separators, scrubbers, fabric filters, factories with electrostatic precipitators can be fitted with smoke stacks to reduce particulate matter in the air.
  • In factories, smoke can be reduced by using gas or oil instead of coal.
  • Generators should be fitted with silencers.
  • To reduce noise and increase energy efficiency, machineries must be redesigned.
  • Apart from making use of earplugs, noise absorbing materials may be used.
  • There needs to be integration of environmental concerns and economic development to address the challenges of sustainable development.

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