a)Ferrous and Non-ferrous minerals
- Out of the total value of the production of metallic minerals, around three fourths are accounted for by Ferrous minerals.
- For the development of metallurgical industries, a strong base is provided by Ferrous minerals.
- After meeting the internal demands of India, substantial quantities of ferrous minerals are exported by India. Iron ore and Manganese are examples of ferrous minerals.
- The production and reserves of non-ferrous minerals in India is not upto the expectations.
- Some of the examples of non-ferrous minerals are gold, zinc, lead, bauxite and copper.
- These non-ferrous minerals play a vital role in the electrical, engineering, and metallurgical industries.
b) Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy
Energy sources can be classified into two types: non-conventional sources of energy and conventional sources of energy.
Conventional Sources of energy
- From different fuels like natural gas, petroleum, coal; energy can be generated.
- Conventional sources of energy include: natural gas, petroleum, coal, cattle dung cake, firewood.
Non Conventional Sources of Energy
- Non-conventional sources of energy include atomic energy, biogas, geothermal, tidal, wind, solar.
- Serious environmental problems are caused by use of fossil fuels.
- Hence it is very important to use non-conventional sources of energy.
- India has abundant biomass, wind, water, and sunlight sources.
- To develop renewable energy resources, India has lots of programmes.