How do you calculate the dipole moment of a molecule?

The dipole moment is a vector quantity and it has both, magnitude and direction. Considering an example of HCl. Due to the greater electronegativity of Cl-atom, the chemical bonding electron pair is shifted towards Cl-atom and it acquires small negative charge (- q) and hydrogen atom acquires small positive charge (+ q). If l is the distance of the charge separation usually taken in bond length,

then, µ = q × l.

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