Soaps are sodium salts of long-chain fatty acids. Soaps are potassium or sodium salts of a carboxylic acid having a long aliphatic chain attached to it.
- A soap is composed of a sodium or potassium salt of long-chain carboxylic acid.
- It is composed of two segments, i.e., a long hydrocarbon tail and a negatively charged head.
- The hydrocarbon tail is hydrophobic, i.e., insoluble in water and repelled by water while the polar end is soluble in water and hydrophilic in nature.
- Soaps are generally prepared via the saponification of fats and oils.
The most commonly used soap making process is the saponification of oils and fats.