The different stages of plant growth include:
- Seed Germination: The seed requires water, oxygen and optimum temperature for its germination. A temperature of 24-32℃ is optimum for germination. Water hydrates the enzymes and food supplies, and the seed becomes activated.
- Vegetative and Growth: The roots emerge from the seed and the vegetative stage begins. The most valuable growth occurs during the vegetative phase, and it continues unless obstructed by environmental change.
- Reproductive Stage: This is the final stage where the plant produces flowers, fruits and seeds. At this stage, the plant requires more nutrients such as phosphorus and potassium.
It is a quantitative parameter and refers to an irreversible increase in size or weight of a cell, tissue or organ. Plants are capable of growing throughout their life due to meristematic tissues present in certain parts.
Growth can be measured by an increase in cell number, length, area, volume and dry or wet weight.
Primary Growth: Apical meristems of roots and shoots is responsible for primary growth.
Secondary Growth: Secondary growth is due to lateral meristems, e.g. vascular and cork cambium. The plant increases in the girth due to secondary growth.
Factors Affecting Plant Growth
The important factors affecting the growth of plants include:
- Temperature: Growth is accelerated with the increase in temperature.
- Light: Light intensity, duration of light and the quality of light influence many physiological processes occurring in a plant.
- Water: Water is an essential factor for plant growth. They grow well sufficient amount of water. They even respond to the scarcity of water.
- Soil Nutrients: Plants require an adequate amount of nutrients for proper growth. The quality and quantity of nutrients affect plant growth.
- Plant Growth Regulators: Various plant growth regulators such as auxin, cytokinin, gibberellins, etc are added to plants to regulate their growth.
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