The sun is in the center of the solar system. It is large and made up of extremely hot gases.
The sun is the source of heat and light and the midpoint and for the solar system. It is made up of enormously hot gas. It gives the pulling force that binds the solar system.
The Sun is a huge, glowing sphere of hot gas. Most maximum of this gas is hydrogen (about 70%) and helium (about 28%). Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen make up 1.5% and the other 0.5% is made up of small amounts of many other elements such as neon, iron, silicon, magnesium and sulfur.
The Sun is one of 100 billion stars in our Milky Way galaxy. Scientists predict that the Sun is about 4.5 billion years old, or approximately halfway through its life cycle.
The mass od sun is approximately 1.9884×1030 kg approximately 333,000 × Earth
The outer layers of the Sun exhibit differential rotation:
- At the equator the surface rotates once every 25.4 days
- Near the poles it’s as much as 36 days.
This unusual behaviour is due to the fact that the Sun is not a solid body like the Earth. The differential rotation extends considerably down into the interior of the Sun but the core of the Sun rotates as a solid body.
The surface of the Sun, called the photosphere, is at a temperature of about 5800 K. Sunspots are “cool” regions, only 3800 K. Sunspots can be very large, as much as 50,000 km in diameter. Sunspots are caused by complicated and not very well understood interactions with the Sun’s magnetic field.