Matter can be categorized by physical and chemical properties. Matter is something that takes up space and has a mass. The three states of matter are solid, liquid and gaseous. Depending upon the various characteristics and properties the three states of matter differ from each other.
Intermolecular space is the space between two molecule or atom. In solids it is very little, in liquids is more the solids but less than liquids and in gases its the maximum.
The solid-state is one of the fundamental states of matter. The molecules of solids are tightly packed because of strong intermolecular forces; they only oscillate about their mean positions.
- The intermolecular space between solids is absent.
The molecules in a liquid are closely packed due to weak intermolecular forces. These forces are weaker than solids but stronger than that of gases. Liquids can easily acquire the shape of a vessel, and they have a fixed volume.
- The intermolecular space is moderate but present.
In gases, particles are far apart from each other. Force of attraction between the particles is negligible, and they can move freely. Gases have neither a fixed volume nor a fixed shape.
- The intermolecular space is free-flowing and plenty.
Many other states, such as Bose-Einstein condensate and neutron degenerate matter, are considered to occur only in extreme conditions such as ultra-cold or ultra-dense matter. Other states, such as quark-gluon plasmas, are thought to be possible but remain theoretical for the time being.