Thermodynamic properties are the observable characteristics of the thermodynamic system. Pressure, temperature, volume, viscosity, modulus of elasticity, etc. The universality and versatility of the thermodynamic laws and their consequences for arbitrary processes at equilibrium constitute the main strength and advantage of the thermodynamic approach. The most common conjugate thermodynamic variables are pressure-volume (mechanical parameters), temperature-entropy (thermal parameters), and chemical potential-particle number (material parameters). The key concept is that heat is a form of energy corresponding to a definite amount of mechanical work.
The term thermodynamics is derived from the Greek word “therm” meaning heat and dynamics meaning strength or force. While equilibrium thermodynamics cannot say anything useful about the kinetics of processes, it can nevertheless give us some insight into the possibility in principle of the occurrence of certain processes, and it can also estimate the extent of the approach to equilibrium.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physical science that deals with the various phenomena of energy and related properties of matter, especially of the laws of transformations of heat into other forms of energy and vice versa.