Differentiate between the following:
(i) Antigen and Antibody
(ii) Antiseptic and Antibiotics
(iii) Serum and Plasma
(iv) Toxins and Antitoxins
(v) Vaccination and Sterilization
(vi) Disinfectant and Antiseptic
(vii) Active immunity and Passive immunity
(viii) Acquired disease and Congenital disease

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(i) Antigen and Antibody
Antigen Antibody
It is usually a foreign material that stimulates the antibody formation. It is synthesised by an animal to combat a foreign material that can cause harm to the body; its synthesis is being stimulated by antigens.

(ii) Antiseptic and Antibiotic
Antiseptic Antibiotic
It is a chemical that is able to destroy harmful microorganisms and is harmless if used on human beings. It is the chemical produced by microorganism that is capable of destroying or inhibiting the growth of other microorganism.

(iii) Serum and Plasma
Serum Plasma
It does not contain blood cells and fibrinogen. It contains blood cells and fibrinogen.
Clot-forming factors are absent in serum. Clot-forming factors are present.

(iv) Toxin and Antitoxin
Toxin Antitoxin
It is a poisonous or infectious substance secreted by germs. It is a substance produced by the body to deal with toxic substances.

(v) Vaccination and Sterilisation
Vaccination Sterilisation
The process of introduction of vaccine to an individual to provide him a protection against a particular disease. It is the processes that kills microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi.

(vi) Disinfectant and Antiseptic
Disinfectant Antiseptic
It is a strong germ-killing substance. It is a mild germ-killing substance.
It may cause harm to skin and body. It may cause no harm to skin and body.

(vii) Active immunity and Passive immunity
Active Immunity Passive immunity
It is a type of acquired immunity in which the body produces its own antibodies against disease-causing antigens. It is a type of acquired immunity in which antibodies are transferred from one individual to another.
Injecting microbes through vaccination inside the body to stimulate the formation of antibodies is an example of active immunity. Transfer of antibodies present in the mother’s milk to the infant is an example of passive immunity.

(viii) Acquired disease and Congenital disease
Acquired Disease Congenital Disease
The disorder that is not present at birth but is developed by an individual in response to the environment and not subject to hereditary transmission. It is the disease that you are born with. It could be either inherited or transferred from mother to the child while it is still in the womb.
Example: Diabetes Example: Sickle cell anaemia

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