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Five Mark Questions:-
What is meant by 'Labelling'?
State any four functions of labelling.

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A simple looking but important task in the marketing of goods relates to designing the label to be put on the package. The label may vary from a simple tag attached to the product (such as in case of local unbranded products like sugar, wheat, pulses, etc.) indicating some information
about the quality or price, to complex graphics that are part of the package, like the ones on branded products (say the graphic of Boat and Patwar on the package of a popular brand of After Shave Lotion or of a lady offering a pen to solicit the views of the users, on the label of a detergent powder). Lables are useful in providing detailed information about the product, its contents, method of use, etc.
The various functions performed by a label are as follows:
1. Identification of the Product or Brand: The other important function performed by labels is to help in identifying the product or brand. For example, the brand name of and product, say Biscuits or Potato Chips imprinted on its package helps us to identify, from number of packages, which one is our favourite brand. Other common identification information provided by the labels include name and address of the manufacturer, net weight when packed, manufacturing date, maximum retail price and Batch number.
2. Grading of Products: Another important function performed by labels is to help grading the products into different categories. Sometimes marketers assign different grades to indicate different features or quality of the product. For example, a popular brand of Hair Conditioners comes in different categories for different hair, say for ‘normal hair’ and for other categories. Different type of tea is sold by some brands under Yellow, Red and Green Label categories.
3. Help in Promotion of Products: An important function of label is to aid in promotion of the products. A carefully designed label can attract attention and give reason to purchase. We see many product labels providing promotional messages for example, the pack of a popular Amla Hair Oil states, ‘Baalon mein Dum, Life mein Fun’. The label on the package of a brand of Detergent Powder says, ‘Keep cloth look good and your machine in top condition’. Labels play important role in sales promotional schemes launched by companies. For example the label on the package of a Shaving Cream mentions, ‘40% Extra Free’ or package of a toothpaste mentioning, ‘Free Toothbrush Inside’, or ‘Save Rs15’.
4. Providing In formation Required by Law: Another important function of labeling is to provide information required by law. For example, the statutory warning on the package of Cigarette or Pan Masala, ‘Smoking is Injurious to Health’ or ‘Chewing Tobacco is Injurious to Health’. Such information is required on processed foods, drugs and tobacco products. In case of hazardous or poisonous material, appropriate safety-warning need to be put on the label.

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