Which of the following graph shows the variation in the volume of 1 g of water with the temperature in the range from 0 ∘C to 10 ∘C?
If we take some water at 0 ∘C and start heating it, we find that in the temperature range from 0 ∘C to 4 ∘C, it contracts (instead of expanding). On heating it further above 4 ∘C, it expands. Similarly, if water initially at a temperature above 4 ∘C is cooled, it contracts till the temperature of water reaches 4 ∘C to 0 ∘C, it expands. This unusual expansion of water on cooling it from 4 ∘C to 0 ∘C, it is called anomalous expansion of water. The anomalous properties of water are those where the behaviour of liquid water is quite different from what is found with other liquids. No other material is commonly found as solid, liquid and gas. Frozen water (ice) also shows anomalies when compared with other solids. Although it is an apparently simple molecule, it has a highly complex and anomalous character due to its intermolecular hydrogen bonding.