The central atom in water is oxygen which is hybridized. So if we observe the formation of the water molecule there are three 2p orbitals and one 2s orbital. These combine to create the four sp3 hybrid orbitals. Furthermore, each hydrogen atom forms covalent bonds with two hybrid orbitals, and two hybrid orbitals are filled by lone pairs during the process.
Bond angle in water molecule
- H2O has a tetrahedral arrangement of molecules or an angular geometry.
- It is due to the fact that lone pair repulsion is greater than bond-pair repulsion.
- Furthermore, the existing pairs do not share a plane. One pair is located below the plane, while the other is located above it.
- Water has two lone pairs and thus the bond angle is reduced to 104.5 from 109.5