1
You visited us 1 times! Enjoying our articles? Unlock Full Access!
Question

# Define hybridization.

Open in App
Solution

## Hybridization:Hybridization is defined as the intermixing of atomic orbitals with the same energy levels to give the same number of a new type of hybrid orbitals.This intermixing usually results in the formation of hybrid orbitals having entirely different energies, shapes, etc. The atomic orbitals of the same energy level mainly take part in hybridization.Types of Hybridization:sp³ hybridization:When one s orbital and three p orbitals from the same shell of an atom mix together to form a new equivalent orbital then this is called sp³ hybridization.For example ${\mathrm{CH}}_{4,}{\mathrm{NH}}_{3}$, etc.sp² hybridization:When one s orbital and two p orbitals from the same shell of an atom mix together to form a new equivalent orbital then this is called sp2 hybridization.For example, ${\mathrm{C}}_{2}{\mathrm{H}}_{2},{\mathrm{BF}}_{3}$, etc.sp hybridization:When one s and one p orbital from the same shell of an atom mix together to form a new equivalent orbital then this is called sp hybridization. The molecules which show sp hybridization, have a linear shape and an angle of 180°.For example, ${\mathrm{BeCl}}_{2},{\mathrm{BeF}}_{2}$ ,etc.sp3d Hybridization:sp3d hybridization involves the mixing of one- s orbital, three- p orbitals and one- d orbital to form 5 sp3d hybridized orbitals of equal energy. They have trigonal bipyramidal geometry.The mixture of s, p and d orbital forms trigonal bipyramidal symmetry.Three hybrid orbitals lie in the horizontal plane inclined at an angle of 120° to each other known as the equatorial orbitals.The remaining two orbitals lie in the vertical plane at 90 degrees plane of the equatorial orbitals known as axial orbitals.For example: ${\mathrm{PCl}}_{5}$.sp3d2 hybridization:sp3d2 hybridization has one- s, three- p, and two -d orbitals, that undergo intermixing to form 6 identical sp3d2 hybrid orbitals.These 6 orbitals are directed toward the corners of an octahedron.They are inclined at an angle of ${90}^{°}$ to one another.For example,${\mathrm{SF}}_{6}$.sp3d3 hybridization:The process of mixing one s- orbital, three p- orbitals, and three d-orbitals in an atom to form seven sp3d3 hybrid orbitals of equivalent energy is called sp3d3 hybridization.For example, ${\mathrm{IF}}_{7}$.

Suggest Corrections
126
Join BYJU'S Learning Program
Related Videos
Hybridization
CHEMISTRY
Watch in App
Explore more
Join BYJU'S Learning Program