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Define hybridization.


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Solution

Hybridization:

  • Hybridization is defined as the intermixing of atomic orbitals with the same energy levels to give the same number of a new type of hybrid orbitals.
  • This intermixing usually results in the formation of hybrid orbitals having entirely different energies, shapes, etc.
  • The atomic orbitals of the same energy level mainly take part in hybridization.

Types of Hybridization:

sp³ hybridization:

  • When one s orbital and three p orbitals from the same shell of an atom mix together to form a new equivalent orbital then this is called sp³ hybridization.
  • For example CH4,NH3, etc.

sp² hybridization:

  • When one s orbital and two p orbitals from the same shell of an atom mix together to form a new equivalent orbital then this is called sp2 hybridization.
  • For example, C2H2,BF3, etc.

sp hybridization:

  • When one s and one p orbital from the same shell of an atom mix together to form a new equivalent orbital then this is called sp hybridization.
  • The molecules which show sp hybridization, have a linear shape and an angle of 180°.
  • For example, BeCl2,BeF2 ,etc.

sp3d Hybridization:

  • sp3d hybridization involves the mixing of one- s orbital, three- p orbitals and one- d orbital to form 5 sp3d hybridized orbitals of equal energy. They have trigonal bipyramidal geometry.
  • The mixture of s, p and d orbital forms trigonal bipyramidal symmetry.
  • Three hybrid orbitals lie in the horizontal plane inclined at an angle of 120° to each other known as the equatorial orbitals.
  • The remaining two orbitals lie in the vertical plane at 90 degrees plane of the equatorial orbitals known as axial orbitals.
  • For example: PCl5.

sp3d2 hybridization:

  • sp3d2 hybridization has one- s, three- p, and two -d orbitals, that undergo intermixing to form 6 identical sp3d2 hybrid orbitals.
  • These 6 orbitals are directed toward the corners of an octahedron.
  • They are inclined at an angle of 90° to one another.
  • For example,SF6.

sp3d3 hybridization:

  • The process of mixing one s- orbital, three p- orbitals, and three d-orbitals in an atom to form seven sp3d3 hybrid orbitals of equivalent energy is called sp3d3 hybridization.
  • For example, IF7.

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