NIOS A-Level EVS Chapter 2 - Our Social Environment

Everyone does some or the other work to earn their livelihood and to fulfil their requirements. In our day to day life, we need many things to meet our wants. We are all dependent on one another in different ways.

In our daily life, we come across people in different professions. We see farmers ploughing the field, a cobbler repairing the shoes, a woman ironing clothes, a weaver weaving fibre together, a potter making new earthen pots and a lot more.

Let us learn all about the people working in different professions.

The Professions in Our Neighbourhood

Over time, the professions of these people have changed. Today, there are different jobs and people associated with these professions have special importance.

Let’s look into a few of the professions in our neighbourhood:

The primary profession in our villages is agriculture. Farmers grow grains and other food products for us. Other professions include:

  • The weavers weave clothes for us
  • A washerman washes our clothes
  • The barber is there to shave and cut hair
  • The potter is there to make earthen pots
  • Cobbler polishes and repairs the shoes
  • The carpenters are there for woodwork
  • The oilman is available to extract oil for us
  • The blacksmith makes several tools for us
  • A tailor stitches new clothes for functions and festivals
  • The manual cleaners or servant maids are there to clean our house
  • The goldsmith is available to make jewellery out of gold and silver etc.

All these people are experts in their professions and the skills come to them

from their ancestors. As mentioned above, in today’s professional life, we all are dependent on one another in many ways and these professions have special importance. Therefore, we must respect every job and person in our neighbourhood and we should be co-operative and friendly, and help each other.

For example:

We all are dependent on farmers for grains, vegetables, fruits and a lot more. Similarly, farmers are dependent on blacksmiths for their tools.

Public Services around Us

We all are dependent on people of different professions for our several needs and wants. We have some public services to fulfil our needs. These services can be Governmental or Non-Governmental. Banks, courts, hospitals, schools, post offices and police stations are some examples of public services around us. These public services help us to lead a smooth and happy life.

Let’s learn about a few public services.

Facilities in Schools

School is for education.

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act has brought compulsory education for every child. Hence, children aged 6 to 14 years (from Class 1 to Class 8) are provided with free education. Apart from no school fees, this service includes free books, bags, uniforms and the compulsory mid-day meal.

Facilities in a Bank

The bank is for deposition, saving of money and protecting all our valuables.

There are different types of banks such as nationalised banks, private banks, retail banks, commercial banks, investment banks, cooperative banks, and more. Every village has a bank facility, where people can open an account, deposit and withdraw money, and earn interest on their deposits. Other than money, people can securely keep all their jewellery and other valuables in a bank locker. Both Government and private banks provide loans at lower interest rates for agriculture, business and education.

Facilities in a Hospital

Hospital is for treatment of disease or injuries.

The hospitals provide us with suitable treatments for different types of infections, allergies and other health disorders. Here, all kinds of vaccinations are given for children, infants and also for adults. The hospitals include 24-hour doctors and staff nurses on duty, well-equipped ICU, special and general wards and are equipped with laboratories, radiology unit, x-ray, scanning, ultrasound, etc.

Other facilities include free health checkups, treatments and life-saving medicines for the poor, accessible Ambulance facility,

Facilities in the Post Office

The Post Office is for sending or receiving letters, parcels, money orders, etc.

India has the most extensive postal services in the world. Along with the mailing services, people can also deposit money by opening post office accounts.

Facilities provided by the Police

The Police are for public safety.

The Police are expected to play a vital role in society. The police force is a public service that protects society by safeguarding from danger, crisis and difficulties. We can lodge FIR (first information report) against any robbery, murder, kidnapping, or other crime in a police station.

All Policemen are trained for the maintenance of law and order. The primary responsibilities of the Police force are:

  • To support peace in the society
  • To arrest the criminals after investigation
  • To maintain security and law and order in the society
  • The traffic police protect vehicles and people on the road

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the three types of Courts?

The three types of courts are:

  1. The District Court
  2. The High Courts
  3. The Supreme Court

What are the functions of Municipality and Municipal Corporation?

Municipality and Municipal Corporation are responsible for maintaining several facilities, including the water supply, electricity, cleaning roads, parks, sewage system, etc. These offices also issue birth certificates, marriage certificates and also death certificates.

What is the role of the village panchayat in the development of society?

The primary role of a panchayat in the development of society are:

  • Preparing fields for grazing
  • Improvement of soil conservation
  • Plantation of more plants and trees
  • Construction of houses for villagers
  • Arrangement of electricity for the village
  • Maintaining public wells, ponds for water
  • Maintenance of village roads and waterways
  • Development of agriculture and irrigation facilities
  • To provide well equipped public services in villages such as schools, hospitals, post offices, police stations, banks, etc.
  • Programmes for eradication of poverty, compulsory education, cleanliness of the village, vaccination of people and animals, etc.
  • Development, maintenance and improving animals breed for milk production, fishery, poultry, etc.

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