Care and Cleanliness of External Organs.

As we have learnt in our previous lesson, we should eat clean, well-cooked food and drink filtered and boiled water. Furthermore, we should also maintain personal hygiene and take proper care of our bodies.

To remain healthy throughout life, it is our responsibility to take proper care of our external body parts by keeping them clean and free from all infectious diseases.

What are External Organs?

Body parts, which are visible externally, are called external organs. Hair, eyes, ears, nose, teeth, skin, hands and legs are external body organs.

The organs used for the excretion of urine and stool are also considered external organs or private parts of the human body. These organs are always covered and kept hidden. Hence, they are called private parts of the human body.

The external organs perform a particular function in coordination with each other.

Care and Cleanliness of External organs

As the external organs are present outside the body, proper care should be given for each organ to keep the human body healthy.

If these organs are not provided care and cleanliness, the unhygienic conditions enhance the chances of infectious diseases in the body.

Let’s learn in detail about care and cleanliness of external body parts:


Hair is one of the defining characteristics of mammals, which grows everywhere on the external organs except in a few parts of the body, such as on the tongue, palm and soles. Therefore, good hygiene is essential to keep hair healthy.

Care and cleanliness of hair include:

  • We should comb our hair daily.
  • Protect hair from dirt and dust.
  • Hair should be kept clean and tidy.
  • Massage hair with suitable oil occasionally.
  • Hair should be washed twice a week with a good shampoo.
  • Dirty hair gets entangled and breaks easily. Hair loss also increases.
  • Dirty hair may lead to tiny boils on the scalp and dandruff. Lice also flourish in dirty hair.


The eye is one of the sensory organs of the body. With the help of the eyes, we can see and enjoy the beauty of nature. It is essential to take special care of the eyes.

Care and cleanliness of eyes include:

  • Protect eyes from injuries.
  • Protect eyes from dirt, smoke, bright light and small flying insects.
  • Always keep your eyes clean by washing them thoroughly and splashing fresh water.
  • Never put any medicines or drops into the eyes without consulting an eye specialist.
  • Avoid frequent rubbing of eyes. Rubbing may cause a wound in your eyes.
  • If something gets into your eyes, wash your eyes, keep your eyes closed for a few seconds and then rinse with clean fresh water. Doing this helps remove the dust or any small particles stuck in the eyes.


The ear is one of the sensory organs of the body. With the help of the ears, we can hear sounds and enjoy different types of music and songs. Other than hearing, ears are also responsible for maintaining equilibrium. It is essential to take special care of the ears.

Care and cleanliness of ears include:

  • Protect your ear from injuries.
  • Clean your ear with extra care.
  • Avoid listening to loud noises.
  • Avoid pouring oil or other medicines into your ears.
  • If there is a boil, discharge, wound or pain in the ear, immediately consult a doctor.
  • Never use a straw, a matchstick, a pin or other sharp, pointed objects to clean your ear, which may damage the eardrum.
  • Always clean your ear from inside and outside while taking a bath. But take care that water should not enter your ear.
  • If something gets into your ear, do not try to pull it out with your fingers or put any other object into your ear. This may result in pushing it deeper into the ear. In such cases, consult a doctor immediately to get it out.


The nose is a sense organ that helps us breathe in and breathe out. It is the primary organ of smell. The nose also helps in filtering the air which we breathe in. It is essential to take special care of the nose.

Care and cleanliness of nose include:

  • Always cover and protect your nose from dust, pollen and pollution.
  • Wash your nose with clean water frequently to keep it clean and healthy.
  • Wash your hands before and after touching your nose
  • Cover your hand or place a handkerchief on your nose while sneezing.
  • Consult a doctor immediately in case of injury, boil or if something gets into your nose.
  • Always use a washed handkerchief while sneezing or during a common cold.


The mouth is the part of the digestive system, which plays a vital role in digestion. The mouth comprises teeth, tongue, gums, salivary glands, etc. It is essential to take special care of our nose.

Care and cleanliness of mouth include:

  • Avoid using coal, ash or sand for cleaning the teeth.
  • Brush your teeth twice a day for 2 to 3 minutes. This healthy practice helps in reducing the risk of cavities, gum disease, etc.
  • Along with brushing your teeth, clean the tongue and rinse well to keep the mouth clean.
  • Make a practice of rinsing your mouth with water or a mouth wash after every meal to reduce the risk of cavities.
  • Use dental floss for removing food particles stuck between teeth and the gum.
  • Avoid eating or drinking very cold or hot things. This may harm teeth, gums and tongue.
  • Avoid chewing betel leaves, gutka, tobacco and smoking. These practices may lead to dirty and stained teeth, which often results in a wound inside the mouth and may even cause cancer.

Hands and Feet

We all walk, run, move around and touch different things at a time. Hands and feet are the most frequently used body parts. We should always care about their cleanliness and keep them clean and healthy.

Care and cleanliness of hands and feet include:

  • Wash hands before cooking or touching eatables.
  • Remove shoes and slippers before entering the house.
  • Wash both your hands and feet before entering the kitchen.
  • Always wear pure cotton and woollen socks in cold weather.
  • Use hand wash or soap to clean your hands after defecation.
  • Wash your feet with your regular shower gel or bathing soap
  • Wear clean and washed separate set of chappals inside the home
  • Wash your hands and feet thoroughly with soap and water before eating anything.
  • Avoid growing long nails as they accumulate dirt and also spread germs and other infections.
  • Always wear clean, dried socks and hand gloves. This protects us from germs and infectious diseases.
  • Apply any water-based moisturiser on both the hands and feet, which helps keep them soft and healthy.
  • Avoid walking barefoot in the restroom, common shower areas at spas and near the beaches. It is the most typical way to pick up fungal infections.


Skin is the outermost organ of the human body. It is the largest and the most vital organ, which primarily protects us from hot and cold effects, air, dust, dirt and other harmful rays. Our skin significantly affects our appearance. Therefore, we should always care about cleanliness and keep our skin clean and healthy. Treat your skin gently by avoiding strong soaps and detergents.

Care and cleanliness of skin include:

Cleanliness of skin means – cleanliness of the whole body.

  • Take a bath twice a day with fresh, clean hot or cold water.
  • Take a mild sunbath for good and healthy skin.
  • After bathing, wipe the body with a clean, dry towel.
  • Massage the whole body with oil or some soft moisturising cream.
  • Avoid scrubbing the skin with rough things. Use good and soft scrubbers.
  • Do not use washing soap or detergent powder to clean the skin. This may cause harm to the skin.

Private Body Parts

The organs which are kept hidden or covered are called private body parts. These organs are used for the excretion of stool and urine.

People are usually careless about the cleanliness of private parts. These organs are vital for our body and life. Therefore, we should take special care to keep them clean. Their unhygienic condition may cause many diseases.

Care and cleanliness of private body parts include:

  • Always use clean water for cleaning after defecation
  • Take special care towards cleanliness of private parts
  • After urinating, wash and wipe the organs with a clean, dry cloth.
  • Avoid using dirty clothes during menstruation. Always use clean, washed and dry cloth or sanitary pads.

Frequently Asked Questions on


List out the external organs situated in the head.

Hair, eyes, ears, nose and the mouth are the external organs situated in the head.


What are private body parts?

Body parts that are always kept hidden and covered are called private parts.


What are external body parts?

Body parts situated on or near the surface of the body are called external body organs.


Why should we regularly cut our nails?

We should regularly cut our nails and keep them shorter because longer fingernails help deposition of dirt and filth and cause harm to the human body.


What is the function of skin?

Skin is an external body organ that protects inner organs from air, dust, dirt, and hot and cold effects.

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