Constitution of India

What is the Constitution?

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of our country, and it defines the government’s policies, powers, political values, processes, rights, and fundamental duties.

Our Constitution has adopted the fundamental elements of most of the major constitutions of the world, as per our country’s needs.

India’s Constitution was adopted in 1949 on November 26. It came into effect on January 26, 1950.

Dr B. R. Ambedkar was the Chairman of the drafting committee of the Constituent Assembly, for which he is called the Father of the Indian Constitution.

Elements of the Indian Constitution

The five essential elements of the Indian Constitution are:

  • Sovereignty
  • Socialism
  • Secularism
  • Democratic Republic
  • Justice, Freedom and Equality.

The Fundamental Rights

The basic human rights given in the Constitution of India are called fundamental rights. These rights are secured to all citizens.

The six fundamental rights, as per the Indian Constitution are:

  • Right to Equality
  • Right to Freedom
  • Right against Exploitation
  • Right to Freedom of Religion
  • Cultural and Educational Rights
  • Right to Constitutional Remedies

The Fundamental Duties

Along with the fundamental rights, our Constitution has also imposed specific fundamental duties, and it is the responsibility of every citizen to abide by these duties.

Under Article 51-A, eleven fundamental duties need to be obeyed and followed by every Indian citizen for the country’s development, progress, and to protect and preserve the natural environment.

  • Safeguard public property.
  • Protect the unity, sovereignty, and integrity of India.
  • Follow the noble ideals that inspired the national struggle for freedom.
  • Value and preserve the rich heritage of the country’s composite culture.
  • Develop scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
  • Defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so.
  • Promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India.
  • Protect and improve the natural environment and have compassion for all living creatures.
  • Provide opportunities for education to children/wards between the age of six and fourteen years.
  • Strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity, for the growth of the nation.
  • Abide by the Indian Constitution and respect its ideals, institutions, and the National Flag and Anthem.

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