Our Country India

India is the seventh-largest country globally, and is surrounded on three sides by the sea.

  • The Arabian Sea on its West
  • The Bay of Bengal on its East
  • The Indian Ocean on its South

India has a vast mountain range in the North, which makes its boundary.

India is a vast country, which occupies 2.42 per cent of the world’s total land area.

It measures 3,215 kilometres from North to South and 2,935 kilometres from East to West. Similarly, 8 degrees, 4 minutes (8°4′) to 37 degrees, 6 minutes (37°6′) North latitude and 68 degrees, 7 minutes (68°7′) to 97 degrees, 25 minutes (97°25′) East longitude.

In this chapter, let us learn more in detail about the physical features of our country, India.

Landforms of India

India is a part of Asia, and it is the second-largest country in Asia after China.

India is a land of geographical diversity. The landforms are mainly divided into four regions:

  • The Great Northern Mountain Ranges.
  • The Great Northern Plains.
  • The Great Peninsular Plateau.
  • The Coastal Plains and Group of Islands.

The Climates of India

There are different seasons found in different regions of India. This is because of the distance from the sea level, distance from the equator, height from the sea level, location of the mountains, etc. India has four kinds of seasons.

  • Winter season – December to February.
  • Summer season – March to May.
  • Moving Monsoon season – June to September.
  • Retreating Monsoon season – October to November.

These seasons play a vital role in agriculture.

Types of Soil

Soil is the upper layer or the topmost layer of the earth. Soil is the wealth of the farmers. Soil is mainly formed by the remains of animals, birds, rocks, water, etc.

Soil is not the same in all the places. They generally vary based on the type of land. Different types of soil are:

  • Red Soil.
  • Black Soil.
  • Desert Soil.
  • Lateral Soil.
  • Alluvial Soil.

Stay tuned to BYJU’S, for more information on NIOS, syllabus, notes, along with its important questions and solutions.


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