Lakhmir Singh Solutions Class 9 Biology Chapter 3 Tissues

Tissue is a group of cells that work together to perform a particular function. In the earlier chapter, we studied the basic fundamental unit of life, that is the cell. The next level after cells is tissues. The types of tissue permanent tissue and temporary tissue are explained in a precise manner. We also get to know about the tissues which help in building the different organs of the body.

Here we also get to know that multicellular organisms contain hundreds of tissues in the body. This chapter highlights the types of tissue present in plants and animals and also about the functions they perform. The tissues play a major role in building up the muscles depicted in this chapter.

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Short Answer Type Questions

1. What is the importance of tissues?


  • Tissue provides structural strength, mechanical strength, and shows division of labor.
  • A collective number of tissues form organs in the multicellular organism.

2. Why do plants and animals possess different types of tissues?


Plants are autotrophic and stationary, whereas animals have to move from one place to another in search of food, mate, and shelter. Plant tissues are suited for the stationary habit of plants, whereas tissue organisation in animals is targeted at providing higher mobility. Plants and animals are different kinds of organisms hence, they require different types of tissues to carry out their bodily functions.

3. Tabulate differences between plants and animal tissues.


Plant Tissues

Animal Tissues

Dead supportive tissues are more abundant than living tissues in plants.

Living tissues are more than dead tissues.

Less energy maintenance is required.

More energy maintenance is required.

4. Write a short note on intercalary meristem.


Intercalary meristems is located in the leaves and internodes at the intercalary position. These help to increase the length of the internode. It is found in grass, monocots, and pines. It is a part of apical meristem and adds to the height of the plant.

5. Write one main function of

(a) Apical meristem

(b) Lateral meristem


(a) They are responsible for root and stem elongation, resulting in an increase in the height of the plant (primary growth).

(b): They cause an increase in the diameter and girth of stems or roots (secondary growth).

6. What are simple tissues? Explain their three different types.


Simple tissues consist of cells that are structurally and functionally similar. They are made up of only one type of cells. Simple tissues are of three types namely parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma.

Parenchyma – they are living cells and walled, soft in nature due to the presence of thin-walled cells

Collenchyma – These are characterized by uneven thick-walled living cells.

Sclerenchyma – They have cells with thickened lignified walls, providing them strength and making them waterproof.

7. Draw a well labelled diagram of parenchyma and collenchyma.


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8. Draw a well labelled diagram of phloem.


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9. Draw a well labelled diagram of xylem.


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10. Give two functions of collenchyma.


Functions of collenchyma

  • Provides mechanical support and elasticity in young dicotyledonous stems.
  • Manufactures sugar and starch if their cells possess chloroplast.

11. Write a short note on sclerenchyma.


Sclerenchyma cells are elongated, dead cells with lignin deposits in their cell wall. They have no intercellular gaps. Sclerenchyma is found in the covering of seeds and nuts, around the vascular tissues in stems and the veins of leaves. Sclerenchyma provides strength to the plant. The main function of sclerenchyma is to provide mechanical support and protection to the plant.

12. Distinguish between xylem and phloem.




Xylem tissue helps in the transport of water and minerals.

Phloem tissue helps in the transport of food.

Water is transported upwards from roots to all other plant parts.

Food is transported in both upward and downward directions.

13. Distinguish between tracheids and vessels.




They are single-celled.

They are made up of a row of cells.

The end walls remain intact.

The end walls get dissolved and become perforated.

14. Explain different types of elements present in the phloem.


Phloem is a living tissue in vascular plants which conducts the soluble organic compounds synthesized during photosynthesis downwards from the leaves.

The constituents of phloem are:

  • Companion cells – it appears to check the activity of the adjacent sieve element and participates in loading and unloading of the sugar into the sieve element
  • Sieve tubes – these elongated living cells, conveys carbohydrates, chiefly sucrose from leaves to roots and fruits
  • Phloem fibres – they are commercially useful as they possess great pliability and tensile strength
  • Phloem parenchyma – also known as transfer cells, they are found near the finest branches, ends of sieve tubes in leaf veinlets, functional here in conveying food

15. What are tracheary elements? Describe their functions.


Tracheary elements are dead, hollow cells with patterned cell walls comprising xylem vessels and tracheids, which function as conductive hollow tubes for water and nutrient transport throughout the plant body. Xylem fibre cells, with evenly thickened secondary cell walls, provide mechanical support to the plant body.

16. Write the functions of parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma.


Functions of parenchyma:

  • The main function of parenchyma is to store and assimilate food. Hence, they are referred to as food storage tissues.
  • Serves as a packing tissue to fill the spaces between other tissues and maintain the shape and firmness of the plant.
  • Stores waste products of plants.

Functions of collenchyma:

  • A mechanical tissue and provides mechanical support and elasticity to the stems of dicot plants.
  • Cells possess chloroplast, then it is involved in manufacturing sugar and starch.
  • Provides tensile strength and flexibility to the plant body.

Function of sclerenchyma:

  • provides mechanical strength to the plant.
  • makes the plant body rigid, flexible, and elastic.

17. What is the difference between parenchyma and collenchyma?




It consists of thin-walled living cells.

In collenchyma, cells are thickened at a localised regions.

They are involved in food storage.

They are the chief mechanical tissue in young plants, particularly dicot stems.

18. What is the differences between collenchyma and sclerenchyma?




It consists of living cells.

It consists of dead cells.

Its cells possess cytoplasm.

Its cells lacks cytoplasm.

It provides mechanical support and elasticity to the plant body.

It is mainly a mechanical tissue.

19. Name the different types of elements found in the xylem.


Types of elements found in xylem are:

tracheids, vessels, xylem parenchyma, and xylem fibre.

20. What are the functions of xylem?


Functions of xylem:

(i) To carry water and mineral salts upwards from the root to different parts of shoots.

(ii) To provide mechanical support to the plant as the walls of tracheids, vessels, and fibres of xylem are lignified.

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