Five Stages of Ecological Succession are –
- Nudation – the formation of a bare area or nudation by several reasons, such as volcanic eruption, flooding, landslide, erosion, etc.
- Invasion – arrival of the reproductive bodies or propagules of various organisms and their settlement in the new or bare area.
- Competition and Co-action – increase in number of species with the limited space
- Reaction – modification of the environment through the influence of the living organism present on it. Reaction causes change in land, soil, water, temperature of the area.
- Stabilization or Climax – final or terminal communities become more or less stabilized for a longer period of time. It can maintain its equilibrium with the climate of the area. Final community is called the climate community which is determined by the climate of the region. Examples of climax communities are – grassland, forests, coral reef.
Further Reading –