What is a State under Article 12?

The term ‘state’ specifies the authorities and all the instrumentalities which are functioning within or outside the territory of India and those institutions will be considered to be ‘the state’ under Part III of the constitution. State under Article 12 includes:

  • The government and parliament of India.
  • The government and legislature of each state.
  • The local or other authorities within the territory of India.
  • The local or other authorities under the control of Govt. of India.

Further Reading:

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