What is the Full form of TNT?
The full form of TNT is Trinitrotoluene. TNT is a yellow solid that is often seen as a reagent in the chemical synthesis process but is commonly known for being an explosive substance with smooth handling characteristics.
TNT is an effective explosive because it can turn from solid to hot expanding gases quite rapidly. 2 Moles of solid TNT transform nearly into 15 moles of hot gas, including a little carbon powder that brings the explosion characteristics.
Properties of TNT
The important properties of TNT are listed below.
|TNT also called as||2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 2,4,6-Trinitromethylbenzene, 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluol.|
|Molar mass||227.132 g·mol−1|
|Appearance||Solid has a pale yellow colour|
|Melting and boiling point||80.35 °C or 240.0 °C|
A brief history of TNT
- TNT was first invented in 1863 by Julius Wilbrand, a German chemist. It was first used for many years as a yellow dye.
- Another German chemist, Carl Haussermann, identified its explosive function in 1891.
- In 1902, it was introduced by the German Army as a filling for artillery shells.
- The British Army used lyddite-filed shells, and it substituted lyddite with TNT later in 1907.
Synthesizing Method of TNT
The synthesis of TNT in the industry follows three steps.
1st step :
Formation of MNT (mono nitro toluene) by nitration process in the presence of nitric and sulphuric acid.
Separation of DNT and again nitration process to produce DNT (di nitro toluene).
Formation of TNT from DNT by nitration process in the presence of oleum and anhydrous nitric acid.
Use of TNT
- TNT is generally used for explosive purposes in the industry and military sectors.
- It is a chemical explosive suitable for demolitions.
- TNT can also be used to generate charge transfer salt.