What is the full form of CFT?
The full form of CFT is the Complement Fixation Test. It is one of the key traditional tests that is blood serum diagnostic analysis used to identify an antibody in the serum samples of a person depending on whether or not fixation exists. To diagnose diseases, CFT is primarily used. In 1909, it was developed by Wasserman. At the start, it was commonly used during syphilis serology.
- A protein known as globulin found in normal blood serum is a complement.
- It binds to the antigen-antibody (Ag-Ab) immune complex produced during the antigen-antibody reaction.
- Fixation of the complement to the complex results in lysis of the cell upon which the Ag-AB complex is developed.
- So, when a complement participates in complexes of antigen-antibody, it is fixed or attached to the complex of antigen-antibody.
- The complement induces the lysis of the concerned cells while the complex is on bacteria, red blood cells, or other cells.
- In the presence of a specific antibody that fixes the supplement to the cell surface, the terminal elements of the complement harm the cell membranes.
- As the target cell erythrocytes are used in the CFT, complementary induced cell membrane harm can be assessed as an increase in free haemoglobin.
- When specific antibodies are found in the blood serum in reaction to an infectious agent, a compliment in the process is attached to the Ag-Ab group, allowing no leftover complement to respond with antibodies belonging to the erythrocytes, so there will be no hemolysis.
- The lack of hemolysis, therefore, indicated the existence in the blood serum of particular antibodies.
- It means that the specific antibody is not found in the blood serum if hemolysis develops.
Advantages of CFT
- It can simultaneously detect a huge proportion of viral and bacterial infections.
- It is a cost-effective analysis.