GSM Full Form

What is the full form of GSM?

The full form of GSM is the Global System for Mobile Communication. GSM established by the ETSI (EuropeanTelecommunication Standards Institute) to define protocols for 2 G networks. It operated as a substitute for the 1 G cellular networks.

GSM is essentially a digital, open cellular radio network and functions in nearly every country. GSM is used not just for voice calls but for data storage and messages.

Characteristics of GSM

  • For signal transmission, GSM is using the Narrowband TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) methods.
  • GSM is a circuit-switching program which works by splitting every 200 kHz channel into eight 25 kHz time-slots.
  • In most regions of the world, GSM operates on the mobile communication bands of the frequency of 900 MHz and 1800 MHz.

Composition of the GSM network

The GSM network has four distinct sections that work together to achieve the overall performance.

  1. Mobile phone.
  2. NSS – The Network switching subsystem.
  3. BSS – The base station subsystem.
  4. OSS – The Operation and support subsystem.

The three frequencies primarily implement the GSM system.

  • 900 MHz – Used with original GSM.
  • 1800 MHz – Used to assist the enhanced subscriber growth.
  • 1900 MHz – Used mainly in the US.

Advantages of GSM

  • It’s secure because duplicating services is difficult because all the data is stored on a sim card.
  • It is compatible with a wide variety of apps.
  • Compared to CDMA Technologies, allows for simultaneous use of voice calls and data.
  • The clarity of voice service is another exciting and challenging function.

Disadvantages of GSM

  • The transmission can face interference because multiple people share the same bandwidth.
  • CDMA technology makes use of newer cellular networks such as 3G.
  • GSM can also disrupt electronic devices as it utilizes pulse transmission technology. Because of this in hospitals and in aircraft, we are advised to keep our cell phones in airplane mode to avoid this electronic interference.
  • GSM is a complex system.


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