FAX Full Form

What is the full form of FAX?

The full form of FAX is Facsimile. It is a telephone transmission, via a phone line, of a scanned copy of images and text printed on paper, transmitted between two people. The device used to transfer original electronically or replicated scanned documents through the telephone network is termed a fax device.

The fax machine processes the scanned text or picture as a single fixed visual image and converts it to a bitmap. Then transmits it in the form of an audio frequency through the telephone system. The fax machine deduces the tones at the receiving end, rebuilds the picture and prints a paper copy.

A brief history of FAX

In the twenty-first century, when the technological advance email came into existence, the fax technology turned out to be out of date. A brief history of FAX is as follows:

  • In 1843, Alexander Bain invented fax technology. He got his “Electric Printing Telegraph” patented.
  • Afterwards, Frederick Bakewell improved the invention of Bain and produced a telefax machine.
  • Giovanni Caselli invented “Pantelegraph” in 1861. It was the first commercially used telefax machine and introduced the first commercial telefax service.

Working principle of FAX

  • The FAX machine is a complete scanner & printer set.
  • The scanner examines the page first and transforms it into a fixed graphic image, then converts it to a bitmap and sends it via a telephone line through audio frequency.
  • The receiving device interprets the signals and prints the reconstructed image on paper.


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