In simple sense, hyperbola looks similar to to mirrored parabolas. The two halves are called the branches. When the plane intersect on the halves Â of a right circular cone angle of which will be parallel to the axis of the cone, a parabola is formed.

A hyperbola contains: two foci and two vertices. The foci of the hyperbola are away from the hyperbolaâ€™s center and vertices. Here is an illustration to make you understand:

The equation for hyperbola is,

\[\large \frac{(x-x_{0})^{2}}{a^{2}}-\frac{(y-y_{0})^{2}}{b^{2}}=1\]

Where,

$x_{0}, y_{0}$ are the center points.

$a$ = semi-major axis.

$b$ = semi-minor axis.

Let us learn the basic terminologies related to hyperbola formula:

#### MAJOR AXIS

The line that passes through the center, focus of the hyperbola and vertices is the Major Axis. Length of the major axis = 2a.Â The equation is given as:

\[\large y=y_{0}\]

#### MINOR AXIS

The line perpendicular to the major axis and passes by the middle of the hyperbola is the Minor Axis.

Length of the minor axis = 2b. The equation is given as:

\[\large x=x_{0}\]

#### ECCENTRICITY

The variation in the conic section being completely circular is eccentricity. It is usually greater than 1 for hyperbola. Eccentricity is $2\sqrt{2}$ for a regular hyperbola. The formula for eccentricity is:

\[\large \frac{\sqrt{a^{2}+b^{2}}}{a}\]

#### ASYMPTOTES

Two bisecting lines that is passing by the center of the hyperbola that doesnâ€™t touch the curve is known as the Asymptotes. The equation is given as:

\[\large y=y_{0}+\frac{b}{a}x-\frac{b}{a}x_{0}\]

\[\large y=y_{0}-\frac{b}{a}x+\frac{b}{a}x_{0}\]

#### Directrix of a hyperbola

Directrix of a hyperbola is a straight line that is used in generating a curve. It can also be defined as the line from which the hyperbola curves away from. This line is perpendicular to the axis of symmetry.Â The equation of directrix is:

\[\large x=\frac{\pm a^{2}}{\sqrt{a^{2}+b^{2}}}\]

**VERTEX**

The point of the branch that is stretched and is closest to the center is the vertex.Â The vertex points are

$\LARGE \left(a,y_{0}\right ) and $\LARGE \left(-a,y_{0}\right )$

**Focus (foci) **

On a hyperbola, focus (foci being plural) are the fixed points such that the difference between the distances are always found to be constant.Â The two focal points are:Â

\[\large\left(x_{0}+\sqrt{a^{2}+b^{2}},y_{0}\right)\]

\[\large \left(x_{0}-\sqrt{a^{2}+b^{2}},y_{0}\right)\]3

### Solved examples

**Question:**Â The equation of the hyperbola is given as:Â $\frac{(x-4)^{2}}{9^{2}}-\frac{(y-2)^{2}}{7^{2}}$Â

Find the following: Vertex, Asymptote, Major Axis, Minor Axis and Directrix?

**Solution:**

Given,

$x_{0}=4$

$y_{0}=2$

$a =9$

$b = 7$

The vertex point:Â $(a, y_{0})$ andÂ $(-a, y_{0})$ are: $(9, 2)$ and $(-9, 2)$

**Asymptote**

$y=2+\frac{7}{9}x-\frac{37}{9}$

$y=2-\frac{7}{9}x-\frac{23}{9}$

$y=2+0.77x+4.1=6.1+0.77x$

$y=2-0.77x+2.5=4.5+0.77x$

**Major Axis**

$y=y_{o}$

$y_{o}=2$

**Minor Axis**

$x=x_{o}$

$x_{o} =4$

**Directrix**

$x=\frac{\pm 9^{2}}{\sqrt{9^{2}+7^{2}}} = \pm \frac{81}{\sqrt{81+49}}=7.1$