This energy due to geothermal gradients and heat flow from within induces diastrophism and volcanism in the lithosphere.
- Diastrophism: All processes that move, elevate or build up portions of the earth’s crust come under diastrophism. They include:
- Orogenic processes involving mountain building through severe folding and affecting long and narrow belts of the earth’s crust;
- Epeirogenic processes involving uplift or warping of large parts of the earth’s crust;
- Earthquakes involving local relatively minor movements;
- Plate tectonics involving horizontal movements of crustal plates.
- Volcanism: Volcanism includes the movement of molten rock (magma) onto or toward the earth’s surface and also the formation of many intrusive and extrusive volcanic landforms.