NCERT Notes: Geomorphic Processes [Geography Notes For UPSC]

NCERT notes on important topics for the UPSC Civil Services Exam. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams, and so on. This article talks about the Geomorphic processes.

The details in the article would help candidates preparing for UPSC 2021.

Geomorphic Processes (UPSC Notes):- Download PDF Here

Geomorphic processes
  • Geomorphological processes are natural mechanisms of erosion, weathering, and deposition that result in the alteration of the surficial materials and landforms at the surface of the earth.
  • The exogenic and endogenic forces cause chemical actions and physical pressures on earth materials
  • This brings about changes in the shape of the surface of the earth which is known as geomorphic processes.
  • Mass wasting, weathering, deposition, and erosion are exogenic geomorphic processes.
  • Volcanism and Diastrophism are endogenic geomorphic processes.
  • Any exogenic element is of nature such that ice, water, and the wind that are capable of obtaining and carrying earth materials can be called a geomorphic agent.
  • When these elements of nature become portable due to gradients, they remove the materials and transport them over slopes and deposit them at a lower level.
  • The gravitational stresses are as vital as the other geomorphic processes.
  • Gravity is the force that is keeping us in contact with the surface and it is the force that switches on the movement of all surface material on earth.
  • It is the directional force stimulating all downslope movements of matter and it also causes stresses on the earth’s materials.
  • Indirect gravitational stresses stimulate tide and wave-induced winds and currents.
  • Without gradients and gravity, there would be no movement and therefore no transportation, erosion, and deposition are possible.
  • All the movements either on the surface of the earth or within the earth happen due to gradients —from high pressure to low pressure areas, from higher levels to lower levels, etc.

Geomorphic Processes (UPSC Notes):- Download PDF Here

The geomorphic process means bringing about changes in the configuration of the Earths surface, due to physical stresses and chemical actions on materials present on earth. The physical and chemical action are due to endogenic and exogenic forces. There are 2 main geomorphic processes.

The below table gives the different processes under the exogenic and endogenic process-

Exogenic Process Endogenic Process
  1. Weathering – Physical, Chemical, Biological
  2. Erosion/Degradation
  3. Transportation
  4. Deposition
  1. Volcanism
  2. Diastrophism
  3. Metamorphism
  4. Earthquake
  5. Landslides
  6. Faulting and Folding

Candidates preparing for IAS Exam can go through the following links for exam preparation-

Which Process is an Internal Geomorphic Process?

The endogenic process is an internal geomorphic process. 

The main force behind this process is the energy emanating from inside the earth. This energy is mainly generated through the 3 processes given below.

  1. Primordial heat which exists right from the time earth was created.
  2. Rotational and tidal friction
  3. Radioactivity.

What are the Geomorphic Agents?

A geomorphic agent is a mobile medium which removes, transports and deposits earth materials. The examples of geomorphic agents are running water, glaciers, wind, waves, ocean currents, groundwater etc. All the movements occur due to gradients, from higher levels to lower levels or from high-pressure areas to low-pressure areas.

What is the difference between Geomorphic Process and Geomorphic Agents?

A geomorphic process is a force which applied on earth materials and affecting its configuration. A geomorphic agent is a moving medium which acquires, transports and deposits earth materials.

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