NCERT Notes: Exogenic Processes [Geography Notes For UPSC]

NCERT notes on important topics for the UPSC civil services exam. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. This article talks about Exogenic processes.


Exogenic processes
  • The exogenic processes obtain their energy from the gradients generated by tectonic factors, processes, their corresponding driving forces and atmosphere determined by the energy from the sun.
  • Precipitation and temperature are the two significant climatic components that regulate different processes.
  • Whole exogenic geomorphic processes are covered under a common term, denudation which means to uncover.
  • Weathering, transportation, and erosion are comprised in denudation.
  • Gravitational force acts upon every material on earth having a sloping surface and incline to create the movement of matter in downward slope direction.


  • Force applied per unit area is called stress.
  • Stress is created in a solid by pulling or pushing and this induces deformation.
  • Forces acting along the surfaces of earth materials are shear stresses and it breaks rocks and other earth materials.
  • The shear stresses result in slippage or angular displacement.
  • Besides gravitational stress, earth materials become exposed to molecular stresses that may be caused by several factors amongst which crystallisation, melting, and temperature variations are the most usual.
  • Chemical processes generally lead to loosening of bonds between grains, dissolving of soluble minerals or strengthening materials.
  • Therefore, the fundamental cause that leads to erosion, mass movements, and weathering is the development of stresses in the body of the earth materials.
  • The effects of most of the exogenic geomorphic processes are minor and slow.
  • It may be imperceptible in a short time span, but will in the long run influence the rocks harshly due to constant fatigue.

Check BYJU’S Free IAS Preparation for more NCERT Geography notes and news on UPSC Civil Services IAS Exam

UPSC Books List PDF :-Download PDF Here



UPSC Preparation